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“You are remembered for the rules you break."
–General Douglas MacArthur
The Tokyo #20 (or Mitsushima) Prisoner of War Camp has a unique roll in history. One of its former guards with the nickname 'Little Glass Eye' was the first person tried for war crimes.
Up until that point, there had never been a trial for alleged breaches of the 'Rules of War.' The trial of Tatsuo Tsuchiya set a precedent that every subsequent trial would rely.
So, what exactly are the 'Rules of War'? On this page is the sequence of conventions establishing the rules for conflict, including the treatment of wounded and captives. While Japan ratified the Hague Convention, it did not ratify the 1929 Geneva Convention. Tojo's Government did state that it would, however, adhere to its rules.
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The Author in Courtroom 600 of Nuremburg's Palace of Justice where senior Nazis were tried between 20 November 1945 and 1 October 1946 for war crimes.
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1863 - General Orders No. 100 - The Lieber Code. Please click on the corners to turn the pages.
1863 Lieber Code.
1864 Geneva Convention. Please click on the corners to turn the pages.
1864 Geneva Convention.
1868 St. Petersburg Declaration Renouncing the Use, In Time of War, Of Certain Explosive Projectiles
1873 Brussels Declaration - Project of an International Declaration Concerning the Laws and Customs of War
1899 Hague Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes
1906 Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field
1907 Hague Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes
1907 Hague Convention for the Adaptation to Maritime Warfare of the Principles of the Geneva Convention of 1906
1919 League of Nations Covenant and US Congressional debates.
1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact
1929 Geneva Convention for the Relief of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field
1929 Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War
1949 Geneva Convention Revision
ICRC: Rules of International Humanitarian Law and other rules relating to the conduct of hostilities.